Unit 4 Exercises and Discussions
U4a1 Bloom's Taxonomy Using Flash, create and a small instructional exercise that presents the six main points of Bloom's Taxonomy in a slide show format. The points are, in order: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, and Create.
Comprehension: understanding, paraphrasing
Application: using, applying information
Analysis: categorizing, organizing
Synthesis: creating new structures
Evaluation: judging, critiquing
In all learning activities, the ability to connect prior learning to performance is always a challenge. Read Chapter 6 to understand the value of prior learning in education.
U4d2 Knowledge Retrieval
How might you use the features of Flash or other authoring tools to design instruction to improve the retrieval of knowledge and skills from long-term memory?
Authoring tools can be used to retrieve information from long-term memory and one way of accomplishing this objective is through the use of learning objects. Learning objects are recyclable and reusable learning units or clumps, clusters, or illustrations of information which can have pictorial, verbal, auditory, animation, or interactive aspects to them.
“A Learning Object is smaller than a course, unit, or section of learning content. It is a small unit of instructionally sound content centered around a learning objective or outcome that teaches a focused concept. A Learning Object may also contain opportunities for practice, simulation, collaborative interaction, and assessment. It is also important to recognize that the structure of an LO reflects the culture and learning philosophy of a particular organization.
Learning Objects consist of three main elements:
1. instructionally sound content with a focused learning objective,
2. learner-centered rich media environments that enable the learner to practice, learn, and receive assessment, and
3. metadata or keywords that describe the learning objects' attributes, and mechanisms for communicating with management systems or other web applications.” (Heins & Himes, 2002)
“Learning objects are small, reusable chunks of instructional materials that can be included on course Web sites or with other digital instructional materials.” (Yacci, 2003)
“The main idea of ‘learning objects' is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments, in the spirit of object-oriented programming.” (Wiley, 2003)
“A stand-alone unit of instruction that generally doesn't require a pre- or post-requisite, and contains a trio of elements: a measurable objective, a learning activity, and an assessment determining whether the objective has been met.” (L'Allier, 2003)
In short, learning objects can be thought of as a sort of a la carte approach to learning.
Flash can be used to create learning objects to improve the retrieval of knowledge and skills from long-term memory when interactivity is required or when animation, color, or illustrations enhance the learning experience as they almost always do when used correctly and appropriately. These activities can stimulate learning of new material as well as cause long term memories to be retrieved within the context of learning. --- Richard
Cuthbert, A. & Himes, F. (2002). Creating Learning Objects with Macromedia Dreamweaver MX. Retrieved on October 25, 2004 from http://download.macromedia.com/pub/solutions/downloads/elearning/dwmx_lo.pdf
University Technology Training Center. (2003). Designing and Creating Learning Objects. Retrieved October 25 from http://training.micro.umn.edu/ShortCourses/resources/pdf/designinglearningobjects.pdf
As you evaluate Flash as an authoring tool, discuss:
As is well known in the entertainment and advertising world, it is necessary to use action -- in a medium that is capable of conveying action -- to hold the viewer's attention. Although there is a difference in the intent and approach in educational and entertainment purposes, educational techniques can learn from and use what is effective in entertainment and apply these principles to education. Of course, the techniques should be used correctly and appropriately so as to not be distracting, unnecessary, or unproductive but the techniques that have been learned from entertainment sources can be used as illustrations of principles and concepts for increasing understanding while learning new material. People always learn more completely when there is an interactive element to their learning experience and the utilization the capabilities of Flash can offer them this experience. Also, people respond to and are stimulated by action and activity which are also ways of enhancing and amplifying the learning experience. Just as someone remembers more about an event by experiencing it than merely reading about it so to does the learner retain more information when there are interactive and illustrative aspects to the information being presented to be learned. These techniques can be used in each of the four architectures of learning which are: receptive, directive, guided discovery, and exploratory learning.
Table from Patricia Lake:
U4d3 comment to Patricia:
Patricia, Your table that shows the content type (fact, concept, process, procedure, principle), graphic support, and examples is a useful demonstration of when to use graphics applications such as Flash to enhance educational experiences so I saved that information in my ED7003 file. --- Richard
U4d3 Comment (help reply) to Kathleen:
First you have to open your Flash file (.fla) with your slide show then you press Ctrl Enter to make a .swf file. Then open Dreamweaver and create the html page where your file is to go. Then with your blinking cursor on the html page where you want the image to go (probably centered) you go to the top of the Dreamweaver toolbar to find and activate Insert>Media>Flash. Then you scroll to that .swf file on the appropriate folder on your hard drive then select that .swf file and press OK. You can resize and reposition that image to place it on the page where you would like for it to be (you will not be able to see the image at that point). Save the html page and then press F12 to view that page with the image on the browser. If that is the image that you want, then after you close that page, you can upload that html page which also has the swf imbedded in it to your URL. I hope I have included all of the steps you need. --- Richard
I think that if someone publishes information or learning objects on the Internet then those items become part of the public domain and they can be used for educational purposes, as long as money is not being made from them and as long as credit is given to the source, is that correct? --- Richard